# Matix, Matrices

A matrix is an ordered set of numbers listed rectangular(square) form.
Example: rectangular matrix A 2 x 3

 A = 71 52 43 48 89 63 2 x 3 is the dimension of A

A = (aij)nxm - standard notation for a matrix(aij are the elements of the matrix), where 0 ≤ i ≤ n, 0 ≤ j ≤ m.

If the rows of a matrix are equal the columns the matrix is called square matrix.

If A is a sqare matrix, the elements a11, a22,..., ann are called main diagonal of the matrix, and a1n, a2,n-2,..., an1 are the second diagonal.

We say that one matrix is identity matrix if the matrix is a sqare matrix and the elements from the main diagonal are 1 and all other elements are 0. We sign identity matrices with En or with E.

When all the elements of a matrix are 0, we say that the matrix is 0-matrix and write 0 for such a matrix.

A + 0 = A

The matrix Atnxm is the transpose of Anxm if we change all rows of A with their corresponding columns. For example the transpose matrix of the A is:
$A^t= \left( \begin{array}{cc} 71 & 48 \\ 52 & 89 \\ 43 & 63 \end{array} \right)$

An animated example: A matrix is called symmetric matrix if it is square and is equal to its transpose.

If we have two matrix A, and B that all elements of B are equal ot (-1).ai,j
B is called opposite matrix of A and we write B = -A

A + (-A) = 0

A = (aij)mxn, B = (bij)mxn the sum of A and B is the matrix:

A + B = (aij + bij)mxn
A + B = B + A

if λ is a number, scalar product of λA is the matrix:

λA = (λaij)mxn

#### Examples

 Let A = 1 2 4 8 B = 11 14 10 15 A + B = 1+11 2+14 4+10 8+15 = 12 16 14 23 Note: if A and B have different dimensions we can not write A + B

if λ = 10

 A = 1 2 4 8 λA = 10 20 40 80 #### Matrices in the math forum

Contact email: 