Trigonometry is the study of certain ratios associated with right triangles, and these ratios are called the trigonometric functions.
The sine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the hypotenuse. If the length of the side opposite the angle is 1, and the length of the hypotenuse is 2, then the sine of the angle = 1/2.
The cosecant is the reciprocal of the sine that is the ratio of the hypotenuse to the length of the side opposite the angle, in this example 2/1.
The cosine of an angle is the ratio of the length of the adjacent side of the angle to the length of the hypotenuse.
The secant is the reciprocal of cosine that is the ratio of the length of the hypotenuse to the length of the adjacent side of the angle.
Please look at
http://www.sosmath.com/trig/Trig2/trig2/trig2.html for a diagram of these functions.